What is bone grafting?
The dentist will perform Bone Grafting to restore bone to its preceding form following tooth loss, gum disease or trauma. Bone grafting procedure involves placing a bone graft material to the jawbone to facilitate bone growth.
Bone Graft Types
Different types of bone graft used in dentistry are listed below:
- Autografts – are bone grafts transplanted from one site (bone from the chin or back of the jaw where a wisdom tooth was removed) to another
- Allografts – are bone grafts harvested from other people who have donated their bone to a bone bank for medical use.
- Xenografts – are bone grafts from species other than human, such as bovine.
- Alloplastic grafts – are made up of hydroxyapatite which is the main mineral component of bone.
Why Bone Grafting is necessary
Bone in our jaw resorbs after a tooth removal causing bone height to shrink. A substantial amount of bone is required for optimal stability of dental implants. If there is no enough bone, dental implants will have less area for anchorage which can cause failure of the implant.
Ridge Preservation Graft (Socket Graft)Ridge Preservation Graft (Socket Graft)
is the most common method used for bone grafting where bone graft materials are placed directly in the hole of a newly removed tooth. It allows growth of new bone to fill the void and prevent the bone from resorbing.
- After tooth removal, a bone graft material (xenograft or allograft) is packed inside the hole of the jawbone.
- Bone graft material is then secured by placing a collagen plug above it.
- The dentist will secure the surgical site with absorbable sutures.
- The ridge graft requires between three to six months before an implant can be placed.
- Radiographs will be taken every four weeks to verify bone growth.
Sinus lift Procedure (Subantral Graft)
Sinus lift Procedure (Subantral Graft) is another bone graft procedure done prior to placement of dental implants. It is done in the upper jaw wherein there is little bone left between the mouth and airspace (sinus).
- Under local anaesthesia, the dentist/surgeon will be doing an incision in your gums to expose the bone.
- A small window will be drilled to open the bone.
- The membrane lining the sinus will is teased and gently pushed upward to form a small cavity or balloon-like space.
- Then, xenografts are used to fill this small balloon-like space.
- Once the cavity is filled completely with bone graft materials, gums will be placed back and secured with a suture.
- It will take six to nine months for the bone to develop and be ready for implant placement.
Dental implant placement will follow once the bone has fully developed which usually takes three to nine months. Procedure for the placement of a dental implant is the same on how it will be placed on the jaw that did not undergo bone grafting.
Two phases of dental implant procedure will keep on afterwards. First phase will be the placement of dental implant while the second phase is the restorative phase or the attachment of tooth crown to the implant.